Poland: A "living" or "social" culture is the way out of crisis
In this new approach the notion of ‘culture’ shifts from the domain of art, artistic production, and the institutional field (without abandoning it completely), towards a ‘living culture’ or ‘social culture’ produced within the networks of NGOs, informal groups, neighbourhood initiatives, and social movements.
Jerzy Hausner, an ex Deputy Prime Minister of Poland, has written an opening essay that claims "culture is a way out of crisis". He lists his steps towards this below:
- education constitutes the foundation of real relations between culture and the market;
- for a politics of equal opportunity, access to cultural capital is fundamentally important, particularly through the development of a variety of cultural competencies;
- access to culture and participation in culture should be practically recognised as an individual right;
- creativity develops with the awakening of cultural needs;
- formation of needs and cultural competencies stimulates development;
- strengthening enclaves of creativity is the most important way of escaping developmental drift;
- it is indispensable to allow a diversity of competing legal organisational forms of cultural activity;
- culture cannot be privatised and commercialised, but must be basically ‘common good’, a common and uniting resource (‘Creative Commons’), understood in the broadest sense;
- the internet economy demands both social communication and cultural competence;
- society and culture are not just mediating institutions between the state and the market – if they do not achieve the necessary level of self-organisation and autonomy then neither state nor market will function well;
- development is not about dynamics or increased intensity, but an evolutionary social change, it is a response to a challenge facing the social system;
- development is a trajectory determined by civilisation and culture;
- culture is not only the ground and context of development, but its key mechanism and dimension.